An abstract is a summary of a longer piece of text. You can find an abstract at the beginning of a dissertation, a thesis, or a research article. An abstract should be concise, helping the reader gather the main objectives and conclusions of an in-depth study. An abstract is usually a single paragraph that consists of the key terms that help search engines and bibliographic databases with indexing published academic content. An abstract includes the main question, i.e. the research question the study answers, the objectives of the study, the methodology, the results and findings of your study, and the implications of the results. Citations are usually not included in an abstract. ​


AuthorCafé is free! Sign up now